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Detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital in horse urine

Diğer Başlık: Detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital in horse urine

Oluşturulma Tarihi: 1999

Niteleme Bilgileri

Tür: Makale

Yayınlanma Durumu: Yayınlanmış

Dosya Biçimi: Word

Dil: İngilizce

Konu(lar): Tarım (Genel),

Revizyon: 1

Yazar(lar): Yazıcıoğlu, Nahit (Yazar),

Emeği Geçen(ler): Turhan, Erdal (Editör), Keskin, Fevziye İpek (Editör),


Yayınlayan: Etlik Merkez Veteriner Kontrol ve Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayın Adı: Proceedings of the 17 th International Conference of Racing Analysts and Veterinarians Yayın Tarihi: 1999 Sayı: 1 Cilt: 17 Yayınlandığı Sayfalar: 218-222


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Anahtar Kelimeler Caffeine, phenylbutazone, lidocaine, pentobarbital, horse urine
Özet Caffeine is an herbal alkaloid which contains xhanthine nucleus. Methylxhanthines are swiftly absorbed after oral, rectal or parenteral application. As a quite effective stimulant which affects the central nervous system, giving caffeine to the race horses is forbidden.Pentobarbital is a short effective barbiturate. Pentobarbital is used in all animals as a sedative. Especially in horses pentobarbital is a sedative and anesthetic agent.Lidocaine is a developed local anesthetic in order to take place of procaine. It is used in horses to a large extent.Phenylbutazone has analgesic, antiinflammatory, anti-pyretic and anti-rheumathic effects. It achieves this effect by prevention of releasing the prostaglandines.This research is a test intended for detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital, which are used as a doping in race horses, in a single method. In our country, the post-race urine samples collected from thoroughbred Arabian and thoroughbred race horses arranged by Turkey Jockey Club under the control of Ministry of Agriculture were used as material. These materials reached to the laboratory under cold-chain and preserved at + 4C°. As a method, Clarke’s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, London; Pharmaceutical Press, 2004 Solid Phase Extraction procedure was used. Extraction colon Varian bondelüt certify 500 mg lot. 2921803 was used. First priority caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital standard solution was prepared and the retention times of these drugs were detected by using Agilent 6890N-5973 GC-MS. By giving the extracted urine samples to the instrument, means of these drugs were analyzed. Every urine samples divided into two fraction as acid-neutral and basic. The basic fraction is derivatized with MSTFA.Concentrating of 5 ml urine samples up to 100 microliter, dividing into two fractions, derivatization of basic fraction is important because of taking more sensitive results.
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Notlar Boothe, D.M. (1995) Anticonvulsant drugs and analeptic agents, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams.7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 387, 388.Branson, K.R., Booth, N.H. (1995) Injectable anesthetics, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams. 7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 221.Carregaro, A.B., Mataquerio, M.I., Soares, O.A.B., Queiroz-Neto, A. (2004) Study of caffeine in urine and saliva of horses subjected to urinary acidification. J Appl Toxicol. 24, 513-518.Dirikolu, L., Lehner, A.F., Karpeiesiuk, W., Harkins, J.D., Woods, W.E., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Fisher, M., Tobin, T. (2000) Identification of lidocaine and ıts metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS7MS. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 23, 215-222.Harkins, J.D., Mundy, G.D., Woods, W.E., Lehner, A., Karpiesiuk, W., Rees, W.A., Dirikolu, L., Bass, S., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Tobin, T. (1998) Lidocaine in the horse: its pharmacological effects and their relationship to analytical findings. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 21, 462-476.Insel, P.A. (1996) Analgesic-antipyretic and antiinflammatory agents and drugs employed in the treatment of gout, Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Eds: J. G. Harman, L. E. Limbard,. P. B. Molinoff, R. W. Ruddon, A. G. 9 th Ed., Gilman The McGrraw-Hill Companies, Inc. United States of America. pp: 617.Kaya, S. (2002) Zehirlenmelerin sağaltımında kullanılan başlıca antidotlar, Veteriner Hekimliğinde Toksikoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-206.Kaya, S. (2006) Genel anestezikler, yatıştırıcı ve uyku ilaçları, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, Cilt 1, Baskı 4, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-236.Kaya, S., Baydan, E. (2000) Kalpte ritmi düzelten ilaçlar, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili , Cilt 2, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 501.Plumb, D.C. (2005) Pentobarbital Sodium, Phenylbutazone, Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5 th Ed., Balckwell Publishing, Stockholm, Wisconsin, pp: 614-626.Şanlı, Y. (1999) Analjezik İlaçlar, Merkezi Sinir Sistemini Uyaran İlaçlar, Veteriner Klinik Farmakoloji ve İlaçla Sağaltım İlkeleri; Baskı 3, Özkan Matbaacılık, Ankara. pp: 214-232.Tebbett, I.R., Negrusz, A., Larsen, A.K.JR., Jensen, R.C. (1992) A column switching technique for the determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in horse urine. Chromatographia. 34, 143-145.Wikipedia (2007a) Lidocaine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidocaine [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007b) Pentobarbital. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentobarbital [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007c) Caffeine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Caffeine [11.05.2007].

KaynakçaBoothe, D.M. (1995) Anticonvulsant drugs and analeptic agents, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams.7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 387, 388.Branson, K.R., Booth, N.H. (1995) Injectable anesthetics, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams. 7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 221.Carregaro, A.B., Mataquerio, M.I., Soares, O.A.B., Queiroz-Neto, A. (2004) Study of caffeine in urine and saliva of horses subjected to urinary acidification. J Appl Toxicol. 24, 513-518.Dirikolu, L., Lehner, A.F., Karpeiesiuk, W., Harkins, J.D., Woods, W.E., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Fisher, M., Tobin, T. (2000) Identification of lidocaine and ıts metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS7MS. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 23, 215-222.Harkins, J.D., Mundy, G.D., Woods, W.E., Lehner, A., Karpiesiuk, W., Rees, W.A., Dirikolu, L., Bass, S., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Tobin, T. (1998) Lidocaine in the horse: its pharmacological effects and their relationship to analytical findings. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 21, 462-476.Insel, P.A. (1996) Analgesic-antipyretic and antiinflammatory agents and drugs employed in the treatment of gout, Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Eds: J. G. Harman, L. E. Limbard,. P. B. Molinoff, R. W. Ruddon, A. G. 9 th Ed., Gilman The McGrraw-Hill Companies, Inc. United States of America. pp: 617.Kaya, S. (2002) Zehirlenmelerin sağaltımında kullanılan başlıca antidotlar, Veteriner Hekimliğinde Toksikoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-206.Kaya, S. (2006) Genel anestezikler, yatıştırıcı ve uyku ilaçları, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, Cilt 1, Baskı 4, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-236.Kaya, S., Baydan, E. (2000) Kalpte ritmi düzelten ilaçlar, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili , Cilt 2, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 501.Plumb, D.C. (2005) Pentobarbital Sodium, Phenylbutazone, Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5 th Ed., Balckwell Publishing, Stockholm, Wisconsin, pp: 614-626.Şanlı, Y. (1999) Analjezik İlaçlar, Merkezi Sinir Sistemini Uyaran İlaçlar, Veteriner Klinik Farmakoloji ve İlaçla Sağaltım İlkeleri; Baskı 3, Özkan Matbaacılık, Ankara. pp: 214-232.Tebbett, I.R., Negrusz, A., Larsen, A.K.JR., Jensen, R.C. (1992) A column switching technique for the determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in horse urine. Chromatographia. 34, 143-145.Wikipedia (2007a) Lidocaine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidocaine [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007b) Pentobarbital. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentobarbital [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007c) Caffeine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Caffeine [11.05.2007].


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