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Yüzey Topragı Stabilizasyon Yöntemlerinin Arazide Karsılastırılması

Diğer Başlık: Comparison of Surface Soil Stabilization Methods in situ

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Yayınlayan: Toprak Gubre ve Su Kaynakları Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayın Adı: Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Forestry Yayın Tarihi: Sayı: 6 Cilt: 24 Yayınlandığı Sayfalar: 263-275


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Anahtar Kelimeler toprak stabilizasyonu, agregat stabilitesi, penetrasyon direnci, infiltrasyon, nem karakteristik egrisi, çay atıgı, frisol, fuel oil. soil stabilization, aggregate stability, penetration resistance, infiltration, moisture retention characteristics curve, tea waste, frisol, fuel oil
soil stabilization, aggregate stability, penetration resistance, infiltration, moisture retention characteristics curve, tea waste, frisol, fuel oil
Özet Ankara’da, islenerek gevsetilen kil tın bünyeli Fluvent bir topraga islemsizin yanı sıra ahır gübresi, çay atıgı, çimento, frisol,baslangıçta bir süreli saydam plastik örtü ve fuel oil uygulanarak, stabilizasyonun artırılmasındaki etkinlikleri karsılastırılmıstır.Rasgele bloklar düzeninde, üç yinelemeli olarak kurulan bir tarla denemesinde test bitkisi olarak çim yetistirilmis ve iki yıl boyuncabitki gelisiminin yanı sıra, 0-40 cm arasında pH, yüzey topragının suya dayanıklı agregasyon yüzdesi, penetrasyon direnci, topragainfiltrasyon ve nem degisimi özellikleri izlenmistir. Ayrıca deneme baslangıcı ve sonunda nem karakteristik egrileri hazırlanmıs,organik madde kapsamları ve hidrolik iletkenlik ölçümleri yapılmıstır.Baslangıçta en fazla organik madde artısı çay atıgı karıstırılan parsellerde belirlenmis, deneme sonunda en yüksek artıs fuel oilisleminde olmustur. Plastik örtü dısındaki tüm islemler, hem topragın yarayıslı nem parametrelerini, hem de nem kapsamını bir ölçüdeartırmıs ve bu etki deneme süresi boyunca korunmustur. Çimento ve frisol uygulamaları basta olmak üzere tüm islemler, topraktahidrolik iletkenlik degerlerini belirgin biçimde yükseltmistir. Hiçbir islemin topragın pH degeri üzerine belirgin bir etkisi olmamıstır.Baslangıç infiltrasyonu ve infiltrasyon kapasitesi, tüm islemlerde artıs göstermistir. Ölçümler sırasında parsellerde bulunan nemmiktarının degiskenligi, penetrasyon direnci ayrımlarının görülmesini engellemistir.Frisolde baslangıçtaki gecikme dısında, tüm degiskenlerde çim gelisimi saglıklı ve tekdüze olmustur. Iki yıl boyunca çim yetistirilmesi,topragın organik madde kapsamı, nem karakteristik egrisi parametreleri, hidrolik iletkenlik ve infiltrasyon kapasitesini önemlidüzeylerde gelistirmistir.
The effects of farmyard manure, tea waste, Portland cement, frisol, initial temporary transparent film cover, and fuel oilon soil stabilization were compared with the control soil on a tilled and loosened clay loam Fluvent soil in Ankara.Grass growth was observed in a two-year field experiment laid out as randomized-block experimental design with three replications,with monitoring of the changes pH in 0-40 cm depths, levels of percentage of water stable aggregates, penetration resistance (PR),infiltration, and moisture content. In addition, soil moisture retention characteristics (SMRC) curves were plotted, organic matter(OM) contents and hydraulic conductivities were determined at both initial stage and at the end of the experiment.The highest initial increase in OM content was determined in the tea waste plots, whereas fuel oil treatment yielded the highestcontent at the end of the experiment. All treatments, except for plastic covering, substantially improved both the available moisturecapacity and moisture content retained. Those effects were maintained, gradually decreasing during the growing period. Alltreatments, especially Portland cement and frisol applications, increased the hydraulic conductivity of the soil appreciably. There wasno evident effect of any treatment on the pH of the soil. Initial infiltration rate and infiltration capacity were increased by alltreatments. Variability of moisture contents of the plots during the measurements prevented the detection of differences thepenetration resistance if there was any.Grass growth was complete and uniform for all treatments, except frisol which had a retarding effect at the beginning. Two-yeargrass growing restored and significantly improved the OM content, parameters of SMRC, hydraulic conductivity, and infiltrationcapacity of the soil.
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Notlar Maki, T., Pan, B., Yuan, Du M., Nakai, M., Vemura, K., Du, M., Du,M.Y., Effects of forest windbreaks deployed in arid lands, Turpan,Northwest China, 2. Effects on prevention of wind erosion and oncrop growth. JIRCAS J., 1(1): 39-45. 1994.2. Baharuddin, K., Mohtaruddin, A.M., Muhamad, M.N., Surfacerunoff and soil loss from a skid trial and a logging road in a tropicalforest. J. Tropical Forest Sci., 7(4): 558-569. 1995.3. Belnap, J., Surface disturbance: their role in acceleratingdesertification. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 37(1-3): 39-57. 1995.4. Kenneth, R.R., Meyers, M.G., Soil Stabilization Materials andMethods. Patent no: 4277203. 1981. 5. Racey, G.D., Sanguins, G.R., An Evaluation of Sprayable LatexMulches in Some Forestry Applications. Forest Research ReportMaple, Report no: 115, Ontario. 1987.6. Mapa, R.B., Gunasena, H.P.M., Effect of alley cropping on soilaggregate stability of a tropical Alfisol. Agroforestry Systems,32(3): 237-245. 1995.7. Vieira, S. V., Machado, C.C., Bueno, B.de S., de Souza, A.P.,Bueno, B. de S., Stabilization of residual soils with craft blackemulsion. Revista Arvore, 19(1): 110-117. 1995.8. Nagarajarao, Y., Gupta, R.P., Biswas, T.D (ed), Narayanasamy, Q.,Soil management in relation to land degradation and environment.Bullındian SSS, 17: 66-73. 1996.9. Neonato, F., Raggi, L., Landscape and environmental reclamationtechniques. Monti e Boschi, 46(6): 14-17. 1995.10. ASTM., ASTM standards on soil stabilization with admixtures,Philadelphia. 1990.11. Bell, F.G., Engineering treatments of soils. E & FN Spon., London.1993.12. Neururer, H., Genead, A., Steinmayr, W., Potentiality for soilerosion control and improving plant production in arid zones.Bodenkultur. 42(2): 101-12. 1991.13. Taha, M., Soil stabilization in Kuwait. EnvironmentalConservation, 16(4): 360-362. 1989.14. Jackson, M. L., Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India,Private Ltd, New Delhi. 1967.15. Richards, L. A ed)., Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline andAlkali Soils. USDA Handbook no 60, Riverside, California. 1954.16. Kemper, W.D., Aggregate stability methods of soil analysis, Part 1(511-519). American Society of Agronomy, Madison. 1965.17. Philip, J.R., A theory of infiltration. 3. Moisture profiles andrelation experiment. Soil Sci., 84:163-178. 1957.18. Bowles, T.E., Engineering Properties of Soils and TheirMeasurement. McGraw-Hill Book Comp., New York. 1970.19. Yong, R.N., Mohammed, L.F., Mohamed, A.M.O., O’Shay, T.A.,Hoddinott, K.B., Retention and transport of oil residue in a sandyloam soil. ın: Analysis of Soils Contamined with PetroleumConstituents, 89-10, ASTM, Philadelphia. 1994.20. Haraguchi, N., Nagaishi, Y., Development of temporary drainagetechniques on sloping farmland. Bull. Shikoku National Agric.Experiment Station, 53:25-45. 1990.21. Forster, S.M., The role of microorganisms in aggregate formationand soil stabilization: types of aggregation. Arid Soil Research andRehabilitation.4(2): 85-98. 1990.22. Maynard, A.A., Hill, D.E., Vegetative stabilization of logging roadsand skid trials. Northern J Applied Forestry, 9(4): 153-157.1992.23. Schultz, R.C., Colletti, J.P., ısenhart, T.M., Simpkins, W.W., Mize,C.W., Thompson, M.L., Design and placement of a multispeciesriparian buffer strip system. In: Opportunities for Agroforestry inthe Temperate Zone. Selected papers from the Third NorthAmerican Agroforestry Conference, Agroforestry-Systems, 29(3):201-226. 1995.24. Aly, S.M., Miller, W.P., Evaluation of two polymers for soilstabilization and wind erosion control. Egyptian JSS, 35(1): 71-83. 1995.25. Chertov, O.G., The role of vegetation in the formation of soilaccumulative horizons in the arid zone. Problems of DesertDevelopment, 4: 6-9. 1992.26. Rahimi, H., Keshavarz, A., Salokhe, V.M., Gajendra, S.,Comparison of asphalt emulsion and Portland cement forstabilization of dispersive soils. Proc Intern Agric EngineeringConf, Vol: 2, 476-493. Asian Inst Technology, Bangkok. 1994.27. Swierstra, D., Eck, van G., Eck, van G., Surfacing with soilstabilization and glorit. Landbouwmechanisatie, 4(0): 22-23.

KaynakçaMaki, T., Pan, B., Yuan, Du M., Nakai, M., Vemura, K., Du, M., Du,M.Y., Effects of forest windbreaks deployed in arid lands, Turpan,Northwest China, 2. Effects on prevention of wind erosion and oncrop growth. JIRCAS J., 1(1): 39-45. 1994.2. Baharuddin, K., Mohtaruddin, A.M., Muhamad, M.N., Surfacerunoff and soil loss from a skid trial and a logging road in a tropicalforest. J. Tropical Forest Sci., 7(4): 558-569. 1995.3. Belnap, J., Surface disturbance: their role in acceleratingdesertification. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 37(1-3): 39-57. 1995.4. Kenneth, R.R., Meyers, M.G., Soil Stabilization Materials andMethods. Patent no: 4277203. 1981. 5. Racey, G.D., Sanguins, G.R., An Evaluation of Sprayable LatexMulches in Some Forestry Applications. Forest Research ReportMaple, Report no: 115, Ontario. 1987.6. Mapa, R.B., Gunasena, H.P.M., Effect of alley cropping on soilaggregate stability of a tropical Alfisol. Agroforestry Systems,32(3): 237-245. 1995.7. Vieira, S. V., Machado, C.C., Bueno, B.de S., de Souza, A.P.,Bueno, B. de S., Stabilization of residual soils with craft blackemulsion. Revista Arvore, 19(1): 110-117. 1995.8. Nagarajarao, Y., Gupta, R.P., Biswas, T.D (ed), Narayanasamy, Q.,Soil management in relation to land degradation and environment.Bullındian SSS, 17: 66-73. 1996.9. Neonato, F., Raggi, L., Landscape and environmental reclamationtechniques. Monti e Boschi, 46(6): 14-17. 1995.10. ASTM., ASTM standards on soil stabilization with admixtures,Philadelphia. 1990.11. Bell, F.G., Engineering treatments of soils. E & FN Spon., London.1993.12. Neururer, H., Genead, A., Steinmayr, W., Potentiality for soilerosion control and improving plant production in arid zones.Bodenkultur. 42(2): 101-12. 1991.13. Taha, M., Soil stabilization in Kuwait. EnvironmentalConservation, 16(4): 360-362. 1989.14. Jackson, M. L., Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India,Private Ltd, New Delhi. 1967.15. Richards, L. A ed)., Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline andAlkali Soils. USDA Handbook no 60, Riverside, California. 1954.16. Kemper, W.D., Aggregate stability methods of soil analysis, Part 1(511-519). American Society of Agronomy, Madison. 1965.17. Philip, J.R., A theory of infiltration. 3. Moisture profiles andrelation experiment. Soil Sci., 84:163-178. 1957.18. Bowles, T.E., Engineering Properties of Soils and TheirMeasurement. McGraw-Hill Book Comp., New York. 1970.19. Yong, R.N., Mohammed, L.F., Mohamed, A.M.O., O’Shay, T.A.,Hoddinott, K.B., Retention and transport of oil residue in a sandyloam soil. ın: Analysis of Soils Contamined with PetroleumConstituents, 89-10, ASTM, Philadelphia. 1994.20. Haraguchi, N., Nagaishi, Y., Development of temporary drainagetechniques on sloping farmland. Bull. Shikoku National Agric.Experiment Station, 53:25-45. 1990.21. Forster, S.M., The role of microorganisms in aggregate formationand soil stabilization: types of aggregation. Arid Soil Research andRehabilitation.4(2): 85-98. 1990.22. Maynard, A.A., Hill, D.E., Vegetative stabilization of logging roadsand skid trials. Northern J Applied Forestry, 9(4): 153-157.1992.23. Schultz, R.C., Colletti, J.P., ısenhart, T.M., Simpkins, W.W., Mize,C.W., Thompson, M.L., Design and placement of a multispeciesriparian buffer strip system. In: Opportunities for Agroforestry inthe Temperate Zone. Selected papers from the Third NorthAmerican Agroforestry Conference, Agroforestry-Systems, 29(3):201-226. 1995.24. Aly, S.M., Miller, W.P., Evaluation of two polymers for soilstabilization and wind erosion control. Egyptian JSS, 35(1): 71-83. 1995.25. Chertov, O.G., The role of vegetation in the formation of soilaccumulative horizons in the arid zone. Problems of DesertDevelopment, 4: 6-9. 1992.26. Rahimi, H., Keshavarz, A., Salokhe, V.M., Gajendra, S.,Comparison of asphalt emulsion and Portland cement forstabilization of dispersive soils. Proc Intern Agric EngineeringConf, Vol: 2, 476-493. Asian Inst Technology, Bangkok. 1994.27. Swierstra, D., Eck, van G., Eck, van G., Surfacing with soilstabilization and glorit. Landbouwmechanisatie, 4(0): 22-23.


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