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Detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital in horse urine

BROWSE_DETAIL_TITLE_ALTERNATE: Detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital in horse urine

BROWSE_DETAIL_CREATION_DATE: 1999

BROWSE_DETAIL_IDENTIFIER_SECTION

BROWSE_DETAIL_TYPE: Article

BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLISH_STATE: Published

BROWSE_DETAIL_FORMAT: Word

BROWSE_DETAIL_LANG: English

BROWSE_DETAIL_SUBJECTS: Agriculture (General),

BROWSE_DETAIL_REVISION: 1

BROWSE_DETAIL_CREATORS: kalebasi, suleyman (Author),

BROWSE_DETAIL_CONTRIBUTERS: Turhan, Erdal (Editor),


BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLISHER: Etlik Merkez Veteriner Kontrol ve Araştırma Enstitüsü BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLICATION_NAME: Proceedings of the 17 th International Conference of Racing Analysts and Veterinarians BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLICATION_DATE: 1999 BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLICATION_NUMBER: 1 BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLICATION_VOLUME: 17 BROWSE_DETAIL_PUBLICATION_PAGE: 218-222


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BROWSE_DETAIL_TAB_KEYWORDS Caffeine, phenylbutazone, lidocaine, pentobarbital, horse urine
BROWSE_DETAIL_TAB_ABSTRACT Caffeine is an herbal alkaloid which contains xhanthine nucleus. Methylxhanthines are swiftly absorbed after oral, rectal or parenteral application. As a quite effective stimulant which affects the central nervous system, giving caffeine to the race horses is forbidden.Pentobarbital is a short effective barbiturate. Pentobarbital is used in all animals as a sedative. Especially in horses pentobarbital is a sedative and anesthetic agent.Lidocaine is a developed local anesthetic in order to take place of procaine. It is used in horses to a large extent.Phenylbutazone has analgesic, antiinflammatory, anti-pyretic and anti-rheumathic effects. It achieves this effect by prevention of releasing the prostaglandines.This research is a test intended for detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital, which are used as a doping in race horses, in a single method. In our country, the post-race urine samples collected from thoroughbred Arabian and thoroughbred race horses arranged by Turkey Jockey Club under the control of Ministry of Agriculture were used as material. These materials reached to the laboratory under cold-chain and preserved at + 4C°. As a method, Clarke’s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, London; Pharmaceutical Press, 2004 Solid Phase Extraction procedure was used. Extraction colon Varian bondelüt certify 500 mg lot. 2921803 was used. First priority caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital standard solution was prepared and the retention times of these drugs were detected by using Agilent 6890N-5973 GC-MS. By giving the extracted urine samples to the instrument, means of these drugs were analyzed. Every urine samples divided into two fraction as acid-neutral and basic. The basic fraction is derivatized with MSTFA.Concentrating of 5 ml urine samples up to 100 microliter, dividing into two fractions, derivatization of basic fraction is important because of taking more sensitive results.Caffeine is an herbal alkaloid which contains xhanthine nucleus. Methylxhanthines are swiftly absorbed after oral, rectal or parenteral application. As a quite effective stimulant which affects the central nervous system, giving caffeine to the race horses is forbidden.Pentobarbital is a short effective barbiturate. Pentobarbital is used in all animals as a sedative. Especially in horses pentobarbital is a sedative and anesthetic agent.Lidocaine is a developed local anesthetic in order to take place of procaine. It is used in horses to a large extent.Phenylbutazone has analgesic, antiinflammatory, anti-pyretic and anti-rheumathic effects. It achieves this effect by prevention of releasing the prostaglandines.This research is a test intended for detection of caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital, which are used as a doping in race horses, in a single method. In our country, the post-race urine samples collected from thoroughbred Arabian and thoroughbred race horses arranged by Turkey Jockey Club under the control of Ministry of Agriculture were used as material. These materials reached to the laboratory under cold-chain and preserved at + 4C°. As a method, Clarke’s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, London; Pharmaceutical Press, 2004 Solid Phase Extraction procedure was used. Extraction colon Varian bondelüt certify 500 mg lot. 2921803 was used. First priority caffeine, lidocaine, phenylbutazone and pentobarbital standard solution was prepared and the retention times of these drugs were detected by using Agilent 6890N-5973 GC-MS. By giving the extracted urine samples to the instrument, means of these drugs were analyzed. Every urine samples divided into two fraction as acid-neutral and basic. The basic fraction is derivatized with MSTFA.Concentrating of 5 ml urine samples up to 100 microliter, dividing into two fractions, derivatization of basic fraction is important because of taking more sensitive results.
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BROWSE_DETAIL_TAB_NOTES Boothe, D.M. (1995) Anticonvulsant drugs and analeptic agents, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams.7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 387, 388.Branson, K.R., Booth, N.H. (1995) Injectable anesthetics, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams. 7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 221.Carregaro, A.B., Mataquerio, M.I., Soares, O.A.B., Queiroz-Neto, A. (2004) Study of caffeine in urine and saliva of horses subjected to urinary acidification. J Appl Toxicol. 24, 513-518.Dirikolu, L., Lehner, A.F., Karpeiesiuk, W., Harkins, J.D., Woods, W.E., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Fisher, M., Tobin, T. (2000) Identification of lidocaine and ıts metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS7MS. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 23, 215-222.Harkins, J.D., Mundy, G.D., Woods, W.E., Lehner, A., Karpiesiuk, W., Rees, W.A., Dirikolu, L., Bass, S., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Tobin, T. (1998) Lidocaine in the horse: its pharmacological effects and their relationship to analytical findings. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 21, 462-476.Insel, P.A. (1996) Analgesic-antipyretic and antiinflammatory agents and drugs employed in the treatment of gout, Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Eds: J. G. Harman, L. E. Limbard,. P. B. Molinoff, R. W. Ruddon, A. G. 9 th Ed., Gilman The McGrraw-Hill Companies, Inc. United States of America. pp: 617.Kaya, S. (2002) Zehirlenmelerin sağaltımında kullanılan başlıca antidotlar, Veteriner Hekimliğinde Toksikoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-206.Kaya, S. (2006) Genel anestezikler, yatıştırıcı ve uyku ilaçları, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, Cilt 1, Baskı 4, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-236.Kaya, S., Baydan, E. (2000) Kalpte ritmi düzelten ilaçlar, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili , Cilt 2, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 501.Plumb, D.C. (2005) Pentobarbital Sodium, Phenylbutazone, Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5 th Ed., Balckwell Publishing, Stockholm, Wisconsin, pp: 614-626.Şanlı, Y. (1999) Analjezik İlaçlar, Merkezi Sinir Sistemini Uyaran İlaçlar, Veteriner Klinik Farmakoloji ve İlaçla Sağaltım İlkeleri; Baskı 3, Özkan Matbaacılık, Ankara. pp: 214-232.Tebbett, I.R., Negrusz, A., Larsen, A.K.JR., Jensen, R.C. (1992) A column switching technique for the determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in horse urine. Chromatographia. 34, 143-145.Wikipedia (2007a) Lidocaine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidocaine [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007b) Pentobarbital. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentobarbital [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007c) Caffeine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Caffeine [11.05.2007].

BROWSE_DETAIL_TAB_REFERENCESBoothe, D.M. (1995) Anticonvulsant drugs and analeptic agents, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams.7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 387, 388.Branson, K.R., Booth, N.H. (1995) Injectable anesthetics, Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ed: H. R. Adams. 7 th Ed., Iowa State University Press, Iowa. pp: 221.Carregaro, A.B., Mataquerio, M.I., Soares, O.A.B., Queiroz-Neto, A. (2004) Study of caffeine in urine and saliva of horses subjected to urinary acidification. J Appl Toxicol. 24, 513-518.Dirikolu, L., Lehner, A.F., Karpeiesiuk, W., Harkins, J.D., Woods, W.E., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Fisher, M., Tobin, T. (2000) Identification of lidocaine and ıts metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS7MS. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 23, 215-222.Harkins, J.D., Mundy, G.D., Woods, W.E., Lehner, A., Karpiesiuk, W., Rees, W.A., Dirikolu, L., Bass, S., Carter, W.G., Boyles, J., Tobin, T. (1998) Lidocaine in the horse: its pharmacological effects and their relationship to analytical findings. J Vet Pharmacol and Therap. 21, 462-476.Insel, P.A. (1996) Analgesic-antipyretic and antiinflammatory agents and drugs employed in the treatment of gout, Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Eds: J. G. Harman, L. E. Limbard,. P. B. Molinoff, R. W. Ruddon, A. G. 9 th Ed., Gilman The McGrraw-Hill Companies, Inc. United States of America. pp: 617.Kaya, S. (2002) Zehirlenmelerin sağaltımında kullanılan başlıca antidotlar, Veteriner Hekimliğinde Toksikoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-206.Kaya, S. (2006) Genel anestezikler, yatıştırıcı ve uyku ilaçları, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, Cilt 1, Baskı 4, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 191-236.Kaya, S., Baydan, E. (2000) Kalpte ritmi düzelten ilaçlar, Veteriner Uygulamalı Farmakoloji, Eds: S. Kaya, İ. Pirinçci, A. Bilgili , Cilt 2, Baskı 2, Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. pp: 501.Plumb, D.C. (2005) Pentobarbital Sodium, Phenylbutazone, Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5 th Ed., Balckwell Publishing, Stockholm, Wisconsin, pp: 614-626.Şanlı, Y. (1999) Analjezik İlaçlar, Merkezi Sinir Sistemini Uyaran İlaçlar, Veteriner Klinik Farmakoloji ve İlaçla Sağaltım İlkeleri; Baskı 3, Özkan Matbaacılık, Ankara. pp: 214-232.Tebbett, I.R., Negrusz, A., Larsen, A.K.JR., Jensen, R.C. (1992) A column switching technique for the determination of lidocaine and its metabolites in horse urine. Chromatographia. 34, 143-145.Wikipedia (2007a) Lidocaine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidocaine [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007b) Pentobarbital. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentobarbital [11.05.2007].Wikipedia (2007c) Caffeine. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Caffeine [11.05.2007].


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